وبلاگ زبان آموزان

آموزش زبان انگلیسی

 
نویسنده: حبیب الماسیان - ۱۳۸٧/٥/٢٤

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نویسنده: حبیب الماسیان - ۱۳۸٧/٥/٢٤

Neither or Either?

 

این دو کلمه هم ضمیر هستند و هم صفت. یعنی هم جانشین اسم هستند و هم قبل از اسم به عنوان صفت به کار می روند.

کلمه  Either  به معنی ( هر کدام از دو) اشاره به دوچیز یا دو فرد کرده به عنوان صفت قبل از اسم مفرد و به عنوان ضمیر در آخر جمله به کار می رود . فعل جمله همیشه مفرد است.

Do you like his two songs?

No, I don’t like either.

Either book is useful to learn.

آیا دو تا آوازهایش را دوست دارید ؟

خیر من هیچکدام را دوست ندارم. (ضمیر)

هر کدام از کتابها برای یادگیری مفید هستند . ( اشاره به دو کتاب – Either  در نقش صفت)

 

در حالیکه  neither  به معنی ( هیچکدام) اشاره به دو چیز یا دو فرد کرده است. ظاهر جمله مثبت اما مفهوم آن منفی است. ( زیرا خودش مفهوم جمله را منفی می کند.) فعل جمله نیز همیشه مفرد است.

Which book did you buy?

I bought neither.

Neither book is mine.

کدام کتاب را خریدید؟

من هیچکدام را نخریدم.

هیچکدام از دو کتاب مال من نیست.

بعد از either , neither  می توان از حرف اضافه  Of   و ضمایر مفعولی نیز استفاده کرد.

کدامیک از این دو اتومبیل را می خواهید؟

Which of the two cars do you want?

هرکدام از آنها خوب است.

Either of them is good.

هیچکدام از آنها را دوست ندارم.

I like neither of them.

هیچکدام از آنها غایب نیستند.

Neither of them is absent.

 

 

 

 

Neither ……. Nor  ,   either……. or

 

چنانچه بعد از کلمه either  از  or استفاده شود هر دو کلمه معادل ( یا .... یا ) در زبان فارسی است.

مثال:

I want either this book or that book.

من یا این کتاب را می خواهم یا آن کتاب را

چنانچه بعد از کلمه  neither از nor استفاده گردد هر دو کلمه معادل ( نه ...نه ) در زبان فارسی است . در این حالت جمله مفهوم منفی دارد و احتیاجی به کلمه  not نمی باشد.

I want neither this nor that.

من نه این را می خواهم  نه آنرا

 کلمات (neither … or) و   (neither …. Nor)  در انگلیسی جزء حروف ربط  محسوب شده یعنی دو جمله را تبدیل به یک جمله می نمایند. مثال:

I don’t like this

I don’t like that

( I like neither this nor that)

 

فعلی که بعد از آنها به کار می روند تابع اسم یا ضمیری است که بعد از nor  و یا or  دیده می شود . مثال:

Neither Ali nor Bahram goes there on Friday.

نه علی و نه بهرام هیچکدام  روزهای جمعه به آنجا نمی روند.

Neither girls nor William is to blame.

نه دخترها و نه ویلیام هیچکدام نباید سرزنش شوند.

 

Eeither Ahmad and I am blame.

یا احمد و یا من باید سرزنش شویم.

 

منبع : کتاب زبان انگلیسی از دبیرستان تا دانشگاه  تالیف عباس فرزام 

 

 

در اینجا  تکرار و یا ادامه مبحث را  از منابع دیگری به زبان انگلیسی ادامه می دهیم:

 

"Either" and "neither" are both singular adjectives meaning "one or the other of two." "Neither" of course means "not the first one and not the second one."

In formal writing, we usually use a singular verb because "either" and "neither" signal that one of the following nouns is the subject, but not both:

Either Bill or Bob is going to the conference. (One or the other is going, but not both.)
Neither Joan nor Jane likes sushi. (= Joan doesn't like sushi. Jane doesn't like sushi either!)

Notice that we say "either...or" and "neither...nor." In informal English, most people would say "Neither Joan OR Jane LIKE sushi." That's all right in conversation, but in formal documents you should prefer the formal usage.

Of course we have a confusing exception to this rule. You can use a plural verb if you have a plural noun next to the verb:
Either Joan or the Kennedys are going to the conference.

But put the singular noun closer to the verb, and it goes back to singular!
Either the Kennedys or Joan is going to the conference.

And it's the same with "neither":
Neither Jane nor her brothers like sushi.
Neither her brothers nor Jane likes sushi.

Of course the verb will be plural if both nouns are plural:
Either the Smiths or the Robinsons are meeting us at the station.
Neither the Canadians nor the Americans are interested in this problem.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




نویسنده: حبیب الماسیان - ۱۳۸٧/٥/٢۱

The difficult parts of English are:

·         the spelling of a word may not show what the pronunciation (way of saying) the word is.
This is because English words came from many different sources. It is not a 'pure' language.

·         because English came from two main sources - old French, and old Anglo-Saxon, there is a very large vocabulary of words. Words with similar meanings may have come from both sources. For example, START (from Anglo-Saxon) and COMMENCE (from old French). The meaning is similar, but not precisely the same.

·         native English speakers use a lot of idioms, that is - words used in a way which is not their obvious meaning. An English speaker may say,

"I do not think much of apples."

This does not mean he doesn't often think about apples. It means that he does not like apples very much!

Yet he might say,

"I think nothing of going for a swim before breakfast."

What this really means is that he actually likes doing this, and that it is no problem to him!

But don't worry. You will find that you can understand and communicate even when you have not been learning English for long!

 




نویسنده: حبیب الماسیان - ۱۳۸٧/٥/٥

در این پست به برخی از اصطلات و جملات معمول و پر کاربرد در زمینه "خرید کردن" می پردازیم.

Shopping

 

Word List

Shop Assistant

Can I help you?                                                                   

What can I do for you?                                                                  

Are you being served ?

Sorry, we don't sell stamps.

Anything  else?

It's on offer.

Buy two for the price of one.

How much / many would you like?

What size do you take?

Sorry, we are out of bread.

Would you like to try it on?

The fitting room is over there.

The dress suits you very well.

Pay at the cash desk / till, please.

I'll take this to the cash desk / till for you.

Here you are. / Here you go.

You're welcome.

That's 20 Euros/euro altogether.

Here's your change.

Customer

I need...

I'd like a bottle of milk, please.

Have you got souvenirs?

Do you sell stamps?

Where can I buy post cards?

Where can I get a film for my camera?

Where can I find newspapers?

Are these bottles returnable?

It doesn't fit me.

It doesn't suit me.

I don't like it.

It's too small / big / wide / tight / expensive.

I'm size...

Have you got this in another size / colour?

May I try this on, please?

Where can I try this on, please?

How much is it?

That's all.

Where is the cash desk / till?

Could I get a receipt, please?

Could I get a (plastic) bag, please?

(I'm afraid/ sorry) I don't have any change.

Do you accept credit cards?

 

 

خرید کردن

shopping

فروشنده

Shop Assistant

خدمت کردن

serve

چیز دیگری هم می خواهید؟

Anything else

پیشنهاد یا سفارش

offer

( در مورد کالا و جنس) موجود نیست

Out of

 

Try on

در مجموع/ روی هم رفته

altogether

اتاق پرو

Fitting room

بفرمایید!

Here you are

پول خرد  یا (مابقی پول)

change

یادگاری ,سوغات

souvenir

(لباس و یا چیزی ) به کسی آمدن

suit

کارت اعتباری

Credit card