PREPOSITION



Definition: Prepositions are a class of words that indicate relationships between nouns, pronouns and other words in a sentence. Most often they come before a noun.

 

 

تعریف  : حروف اضافه گروهی از وآژگان  هستند که ارتباطات فی مابین اسم ها , ضمایر  و سایر کلمات را در یک جمله نشان می دهند و اغلب اوقات قبل از اسم می آیند. .

 

 

یک  قاعده  بسیار ساده در ارتباط با حروف اضافه وجود دارد و  این است که برخلاف سایر قوانین مشمول هیچ استثنایی نمی شود :

Rule
A preposition is followed by a "noun". It is never followed by a verb.

هر حرف اضافه ای به همراه یک « اسم » می آید و هیچگاه با یک فعل همراه نمی شود.

By "noun" we include:

  • noun (dog, money, love)
  • proper noun (name) (Bangkok, Mary)
  • pronoun (you, him, us)
  • noun group (my first job)
  • gerund (swimming)

A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb, we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form.

Quick Quiz: In the following sentences, why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible, according to the above rule:

  • I would like to go now.
  • She used to smoke.

 


 

:برخی از حروف اضاقه رایج عبارتند از
Some common prepositions are:

about
above
across
after
against
along
among
around
at
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
between
beyond
but

by
despite
down
during
except
for
from
in
inside
into
like
near
of
off
on
onto
out

outside
over
past
since
through
throughout
till
to
toward
under
underneath
until
up
upon
with
within
without.

 

 

 :حرف اضافه معمولا قبل از اسم به کار می روند 

 

For example:

 

  • after class
  • at home
  • before Tuesday
  • in London
  • on fire
  • with pleasure

 حرف اضافه، معمولا نشان دهنده رابطه زمانی، مکانی یا منطقی مفعول باسایر اجزاء جمله می باشد   

به طور مثال 

  • The book is on the table.
  • The book is beside the table.
  • She read the book during class.

    In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.

Prepositions are classified as simple or compound:

 

Simple prepositions
Simple prepositions are single word prepositions. These are all showed above.

For example:

  • The book is on the table.

Compound prepositions
Compound prepositions are more than one word. in between and because of are prepositions made up of two words - in front of, on behalf of are prepositions made up of three words.

For example:

  • The book is in between War and Peace and The Lord of the Rings.
  • The book is in front of the clock.

Examples:

  • The children climbed the mountain without fear.
  • There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.
  • The spider crawled slowly along the banister.

 

The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English:

Prepositions of Time:

 

 

English

Usage

Example

  • on
  • قبل از ایام هفته
  • days of the week
  • on Monday
  • in
  • در مورد زمان : قبل از ماه –فصل – سال - قرن
  • months / seasons
  • time of day
  • year
  • after a certain period of time (when?)
  • in August / in winter
  • in the morning
  • in 2006
  • in an hour
  • at
  • قبل از دقیقه و ساعت و سایر موارد ذیل
  • At ten minutes
  • for night
  • for weekend
  • a certain point of time (when?)
  • at night
  • at the weekend
  • at half past nine
  • since
  • from a certain point of time (past till now)
  • since 1980
  • for
  • over a certain period of time (past till now)
  • for 2 years
  • ago
  • a certain time in the past
  • 2 years ago
  • before
  • earlier than a certain point of time
  • before 2004
  • to
  • گفتن زمان
  • telling the time
  • ten to six (5:50)
  • past
  • telling the time
  • ten past six (6:10)
  • to / till / until
  • marking the beginning and end of a period of time
  • from Monday to/till Friday
  • till / until
  • in the sense of how long something is going to last
  • He is on holiday until Friday.
  • by
  • in the sense of at the latest
  • up to a certain time
  • By 11 o'clock, I had read five pages.

 

ببغیر از حروف اضافه مکان و سایر مباحث گسترده ای که در مورد کاربرد این حروف دارد در ضمن باید خاطرنشان کرد که بعضی افعال و اصطلاحات در زبان انگلیسی با حروف اضافه مختلف بکار می روند و در نتیجه ممکن است معنی اصلی  خود را کاملا از دست بدهند.  این مبحث مهمترین بخش حروف اضافه محسوب می شود. و اکثرا در آزمونهای مختلف زبان انگلیسی از جمله کنکور عمومی و اختصاصی , و آزمونهای تافل و آیلتس کاربرد  دارند  که در مباحث بعدی مورد بررسی قرار می دهیم.

 

http://www.englishlanguageguide.com/english/grammar/preposition.asp 

 

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